Transportation Tuesdays: The History of Public Transportation

When people with disabilities started to move out of the institutions and out of their parents back bedrooms, they soon discovered that if they didn’t have dependable, accessible public transportation then there was no difference being forced to stay in the back bedroom or locked away in an institution behind cold stone walls.” – Arthur Campbell, Jr.


Caption: Arthur Campbell, Jr.

Alt-text: Arthur Campbell, Jr. Seated in his wheelchair looking confidently at the camera. A sign on the back of his chair reads “If I can’t do it, it ain’t worth doing.”

In 1984, Arthur Campbell, Jr. and 3 other individuals decided to address the lack of accessible public transportation in Louisville, Kentucky. Every week for the next year, they met and studied federal, state, and local public transportation laws and regulations. They began to show up at transportation-related meetings and meetings of the Kentucky Legislature.

Between 1985-89 they met with the Transit Authority directors and other officials, trying to negotiate a list of things that would create accessible public transportation and meet the people’s needs.

Newspaper Article

Caption: Newspaper, Handicapped Seek Change in Public Transit
Alt-text: Newspaper showing several people protesting for a change in public transit. One protestor’s sign reads “Let us use token not be tokens. Accessibility now!” Another reads “Adapt Now!”

The negotiations were getting nowhere. The group began to call themselves “Louisville ADAPT,” and talked about taking to the street to demonstrate and protest.

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Transportation Tuesdays: Kentucky Assistive Technology Loan Corporation

The Kentucky Assistive Technology Loan Corporation (KATLC) provides loans for any type of assistive device, equipment, or home modification that will improve the quality of life or increase the independence of Kentuckians with disabilities. This can include vehicle modifications, mobility devices, adaptive technology, hearing aids, Braille equipment, vision aids, home modifications, and more.

KATLC has provided more than $7 million in loans to Kentuckians with disabilities to obtain the assistive technology they need. Any Kentucky resident that has a permanent disability or is the parent of an individual with a disability is eligible to apply. Applicants must have lived in Kentucky for at least six months and must be able to repay the loan.

A non-profit organization can also apply for a KATLC loan. The organization must be providing assistive technology to individuals with disabilities, and it must be able to demonstrate how the assistive technology will be used for potential customers.

Learn more about KATLC, eligibility, the application process, and benefits, at

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Transportation Tuesday: K-TAP Kentucky WORKS Program

There’s a new module on the Transportation website! The K-TAP Kentucky WORKS Program is a service available to Kentuckians who are unemployed, under-employed, or about to become unemployed and are pregnant or responsible for a child under 19 years of age. This program offers monthly transportation support payments and yearly auto repair funds to work-eligible individuals.

The Kentucky Transitional Assistance Program (K-TAP) is a program that provides financial assistance and support to Kentucky families in need. The Kentucky WORKS Program is a program available to those receiving K-TAP benefits and provides job-seeking assistance. The goal of this program is to enable work-eligible individuals to support their families through self-sufficiency. 

This service is available to Kentuckians who are unemployed, under-employed, or about to become unemployed and are pregnant or responsible for a child under 19 years of age. Kentucky WORKS offers payments for transportation- and travel-related payments necessary to work, participate, or prepare to participate in Kentucky WORKS program activities. Participants can receive up to $200 per month for participating in four or more K-TAP activities per month or $15 per month for participating in three or less activities per month. 

This program also offers $1,500 per year in auto repair and associated expenses. This can include repairs to make it functional (brakes, transmission or engine repair, mufflers, or tires) or other expenses like property taxes, vehicle registration and license fees, and auto liability insurance. 

To learn more about K-TAP and the Kentucky WORKS Program, visit

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Transportation Tuesday: Ride Share

Since the invention of cars, people have shared rides; however, ride share participation has dropped significantly in recent years. Data shows that nine out of ten people drive to work in a car alone.

Waze Carpool is a Ride Share resource app that allows people to find riders or drivers in their area. Some important things to know about Waze Carpool are:

  1. Riders pay no more than the IRS reimbursement rate.
  2. Drivers do not earn taxable income or pay fees.
  3. App use is limited to two trips per day. It can be used to go to and from work or school.
  4. Home and destination addresses are hidden until you accept the carpool.
  5. Drivers use the Waze app, while riders use the Waze Carpool app.

The Transportation Initiative offers video, audio, and written information on creating and participating in a Ride Share. Learn more information at

The University of Kentucky and the Human Development Institute are not affiliated with Waze or Waze Carpool.  This resource is shared as information only and should not be considered an endorsement.


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Transportation Tuesday: ADA Paratransit

ADA Paratransit is an available service when a city’s fixed-route transit system does not meet the needs of a bus rider with a disability. To fully understand ADA Paratransit, we need to understand fixed-route service first.

Fixed-route transit systems operate on a set route and follow a fixed schedule. A city bus is an example of fixed-route transit. When a rider’s needs cannot be met by the fixed-route system, 42 U.S. Code, Section 12143 requires the public transit agency provide an alternate, accessible service. Per ADA Paratransit requirements, ADA Paratransit service area is the same as the fixed-route service.

Riders are eligible for ADA Paratransit service if they cannot independently use all or portions of the fixed-route service, even if they would be able to with the help of a friend or personal attendant. Eligibility may not be limited to categories of trips. ADA Paratransit is available for all categories of trips, including business, personal, and leisure, just like the fixed-route system.

The Transportation Initiative offers video, audio, and written information on ADA Paratransit eligibility, service types, scheduling, riding with a companion, and other helpful information. Learn more about ADA Paratransit service by watching short videos, listening to audio content, or viewing handouts at